Cytology and Plectology of the Hymenomycetes – 2nd revised edition



Author: Clémençon H. (2012)

Publisher: J. Cramer Verlag.  Edition number: 2  Language: English. – Number of pages: 520. ISBN: 9783443500375.


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SKU: FNE_6-1-3-1-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1 Category:



The second edition of this standard work has about six percent more pages and some more illustrations than the first one. A few illustrations have been replaced, the few typographical errors corrected and the nomenclature of treated fungi updated (e.g. Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, Contumyces). The structure corresponds to the previous edition. The text was revised in places and new findings of the last decade were incorporated. Fundamental aspects of cytology, plectology (“histology”) and anatomy of Agaricomycetidae (formerly Hymenomycetes), e.g. Agaricales, Boletales, Polyporales, Cantharellales and others are discussed. Heinz Clemençon presents knowledge of mycological research from the late 18th Century until spring of 2011. The focus is on the description of the mushroom anatomy under critical examination of the relevant aspects. The author puts special emphasis on the terminology used, which he updated and checked for logical errors. Terms to be avoided and rejected are listed. Although the terminology certainly is not yet used as widespread as hoped by the author, it is very valuable to find the concepts so clearly presented and summed up. The respective structures are richly illustrated with black/white photos of excellent thin sections. To illustrate the many photographs schemata are included. Remarks on the historical development precede almost every chapter.

Perfect complements are two more books by the same author: one with many coloured illustrations of the anatomical thin sections (Clemençon, H., 2012: Großpilze im Mikroskop. Beiheft zur Zeitschrift für Mykologie 12) and a methodological book (Clemençon, H.: Methods for working with macrofungi: laboratory cultivation and preparation of larger fungi for light microscopy). The main chapters deal with:

1st. Basic concepts.

2nd. The hyphae of the Hymenomycetes (cytology of vegetative hyphae, hyphal walls, septa, dolipores, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitosis, clamp connections, hyphal types and their correct name).
3rd. The mycelium and its organs (mycelial types and organization, specific cell types such as allocysts, stephanocysts, mycelial cystidia and basidia, rhizomorphs).
4th. Mitospores of the Hymenomycetes (conidia, chlamydospores, hyphal fragments).
5th. Basidia and basidiospores (terminology, sporulation, karyology and meiosis, types of basidia, structure of basidiospores like wall, germ pore, spore discharge).
6th. Cystidia, pseudocystidia and hyphidia (terminology and types, such as lampro-, lageno-, skeletocystidia).
7th. Pigment topography.
8th. Bulbils, sclerotia and pseudosclerotia.
9th. Basidiomes (fruit body types, hymenophore and hymenium, plectology of the fruiting bodies, pseudorhizae, Rhacophyllus-forms, stilboids).
10th. Carpogenesis: terminology and types of fruiting body development using many examples.
11th. Associations of Hymenomycetes with other organisms (bacteria, Cyanoprokaryota, algae, mosses, mycorrhiza, this is covered only briefly, termites, ants).

A detailed table of contents, a comprehensive bibliography, taxonomic and subject index allow quick orientation in the book.

Actually, the positive reviews of the first English edition, e.g. in Mycol. Res, Persoonia, inoculum and in the Austrian Journal of Mycology, available on the homepage of the publisher (, can be adopted unchanged for the second edition. The work is a treasure trove of information about basic understanding of anatomy and morphology of fungi. Everyone working in mycology will find suggestions and further information. I do not doubt that the second edition will be an indispensable reference for all who have to do with microscopic features of hymenial cell biology, anatomy, ontogeny or taxonomy. Also I can recommend reading for deeply interested amateur mycologists.”

– Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Sydowia 164(2)

Table of Contents

1 Basic concepts 1
The Hymenomycetes and the Other Fungi 1
General Developmental Morphology 2
Diploidy and Polyploidy 8
2 The Hyphae of the Hymenomycetes 9
Historical Notes 9
Cytology of the Vegetative Hypha 9
Hyphal Walls 10
Septa, Dolipores and Hyphal Cells 11
Hyphal Sheaths 13
The Cytoplasm 15
The Spitzenkörper and Apical Growth of Hyphae 15
Other Cytoplasmic Organelles 17
The Nucleus and Mitosis 19
Clamp Connections and Pseudoclamps 23
Modified Hyphae 26
Sclerohyphae 27
Fibre Hyphae (Skeletal Hyphae) 27
Binding Hyphae 29
Supporting Hyphae (Skeletoid Hyphae) 29
Storage Hyphae 32
Physalohyphae 35
Geliferous Hyphae 36
Secretory Hyphae 38
Historical Notes 38
The Conventional Terminology 39
A Modern Terminology of Secretory Hyphae 40
The Appearance of the Deuteroplasm 41
Changing Deuteroplasm 42
An Arrangement of Secretory Hyphae 42
The Hydroplera 43
The Heteroplera 45
The Latex 46
The Laticifera 46
The Gloeoplera 48
The Thromboplera 49
Chemical Reactivity of the Deuteroplasm 52
3 The Mycelium and its Organs 55
Mycelial Types 55
Mycelial Organisations after Boidin 57
Dynamics of the Young Mycelium 59
Hyphal Fusions 63
Morphology and Differentiations of the Mature Mycelium 72
Mycelial Architectures 72
Allocysts and Thrombocysts 77
Stephanocysts, Echinocysts, Malocysts and Drepanocysts 79
Gloeosphexes, Toxocysts and Digitocysts 83
Mycelial Cystidia, Lagenocysts and Acanthocytes 85
Mycelial Basidia 87
Rhizomorphs and Hyphal Cords 89
Cuticular Cells, Mycelioderms and Pseudosclerotial Plates 116
4 Mitospores of the Hymenomycetes 122
Arthroconidia 125
Chlamydospores 129
Blastoconidia 140
Annelloconidia 144
Multicellular Hyphal Fragments 145
5 Basidia and Basidiospores 146
Spore Terminology and Phylogenetic Interpretations 147
The Formation of Basidiospores 149
Karyogamy and Meiosis 151
The Third Nuclear Division 153
Formation of the Sterigmata and the Apophysis 155
The Number of Sterigmata 156
Two-Spored Basidia and Amphithally 157
Parthenogenesis 159
The Siderophilous Granulation 160
Basidial Types 162
Variations of the Basidium 168
The Tulasnella Basidium 170
The Basidiospores 171
Form and Size of the Basidiospores 172
The Basidiospore Wall 178
Wall Structures Seen with the Light Microscope 179
Wall Structures Seen with the Electron Microscope 182
The eusporium 182
The Myxosporium 183
Some Unclassified Myxosporia 193
Modifications of the Myxosporium 195
Germ Pores 198
Papillae 203
The Apiculus and Spore Liberation 204
The Mechanism of Spore Discharge 206
Germination of the Basidiospores 207
6 Cystidia, Pseudocystidia and Hyphidia 213
Historical Notes 213
Terminology and Classification of the Cystidia 215
Cystidia 218
Deuterocystidia 218
Chrysocystidia 218
Gloeocystidia 221
Russulaceae 222
Gloeocantharellus 225
Fayodia deusta 225
Peniophora 226
Alethocystidia 226
Astrocystidia 226
Halocystidia 227
Lagenocystidia 229
Lamprocystidia 229
Inocybe-type 230
Metuloids 232
Pluteus-type 233
Setae 234
Some more lamprocystidia 237
Leptocystidia 238
Lyocystidia 241
Ornatocystidia 241
Scopulocystidia 242
Trabecular Cystidia 243
Pseudocystidia 244
Heterocystidia 244
Skeletocystidia 245
Septocystidia 245
Hyphidia 246
Liana Hyphae, Hyphal Pegs and Hymenial Aculei 250
Terms That Should be Avoided 252
Rejected Terms 253
7 Pigment Topography 255
8 Bulbils, Sclerotia and Pseudosclerotia 259
Historical Notes 259
Bulbils 260
Sclerotia and Pseudosclerotia 262
9 Basidiomes 289
Historical Notes 290
Basidiome Types 291
Hymenophore Configurations 299
Plectology of the Basidiomes 301
The Basic Contexts 302
Hymenia and Hymenophores 307
Cortical Layers 332
Pseudorhizae 343
Rhacophyllus Forms and Stilboids 347
10 Carpogenesis 353
Historical Notes 353
Basic Concepts and Terminology 355
The Nodulus 355
Selected Examples 359
Corticioid Fungi 359
Stereoid Fungi 361
Mucronelloid and Cyphelloid Fungi 361
Clavarioid Fungi 367
Cantharelloid Fungi 370
Polyporoid Fungi 372
Agaricoid and Boletoid Fungi 377
Secotioid Fungi 428
Nodulocleistoblemate Agarics 429
11 Associations of Hymenomycetes with Other Organisms 431
Bacteria in Basidiomes 431
Cyanobacteria and Algae 433
Associations without morphological specialisations 433
Hymenomycetes parasitic on algae 435
Basidiolichenes 436
Mosses and Liverworts (Bryophyta) 444
Mycorrhizae of Seed Plants 445
Ecological aspects of mycorrhiza 445
Morphological classification of the mycorrhizae 447
Perimycorrhiza 448
Ectomycorrhiza 449
Ectendomycorrhiza 452
Endomycorrhiza 455
Hymenomycetes, Termites and Ants 457
Fungus growing termites 458
Fungus growing ants 463
Bibliography 465
Subject Index 511
Taxonomic Index 515


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